What were the causes of the French Revolution?  

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Well, there were several revolution in the French history but my guess is that we are talking about THE French Revolution of 1789 against the French monarchy and established the first republic. 

There were several things that led up to the French Revolution, the main cause being the Enlightenment and the economic issues going on between the monarchs and bourgeoisie. The Enlightenment brought new ideas of policy, art and new ways of thinking to the French which of course would lead people into wanting change. On top of that the French economy was undergoing an epic downfall, there was many food shortages and the raising of taxes by the aristocracy. Taxes being raised led to bankruptcy in the middle class. On top of that was the inability of King Louis XVI to fix the problem. All of these issues led to a coup d' etat  of the french government that began in 1789 and ended in the first French Republic in 1792.

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