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It seems to me that these two eras are pretty similar. They are both characterized by relatively long periods of peace both within the society and in the relations with foreign countries.
Also in both cases, the societies benefitted from the peace that the periods gave them. Because of this peace, they were able to devote their energies and resources to such things as art, literature, philosophy and other such things. This meant that both societies enjoyed something of a Golden Age.
So these two periods are really quite similar -- times of peace allowed the societies to flower culturally.
There are three ways in which the age of Pericles and the Pax Romana of Augustus were similar.
1. Both ages experienced a renaissance in literature and arts. On the Greek side, Pericles and his regime viewed themselves as a school for the other Greek states. And on the Roman side, the Augustan age produced notable authors such as Vergil and Horace.
2. Both ages were an age of great building. For example Pericles did extensive work on the Acropolis and Augustus in the Res Gestae states that restored or built no less than 82 temples.
3. Both ages were a time of expansion. The Athenians took over the Delian league and Octavian (Augustus) defeated Antony and Celopatra at Actium in 31 BC.
As for longevity, The Augustan age or the Pax Romana lasted much longer. Pericles' world was cut short by the Peloponnesian War.
Pericles was a revered figure in Ancient Greece. And during his time here is a golden age of peace in Athens. The 'Pax Romana' was also a time of no conflict or war for Rome. Pax is the latin word for peace. And Romana simply means Roman. hence, Roman Peace, pax Romana. It was a time of no conflict or war for both civilizations.
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