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Many Americans viewed the war, while hardly a resounding success, as a coming-of-age event. Nationalism was manifested in the post-war era, or the "Era of Good Feelings," in a number of different ways. The Monroe Doctrine, articulated eight years after the war, reflected a new-found confidence. Proposals by James Madison, later packaged as the "American System" by Henry Clay, included infrastructural developments like canals, roads, and lighthouses, all financed by the federal government. Developing industries contributed to a new sense of commercial independence. The United States was portrayed in popular culture as "Uncle Sam" for the first time during this period. Finally, the end of the Federalist Party, a legacy of the war, contributed to a very short-lived sense of national unity. The Second Bank of the United States was also chartered in the wake of the war, leading to the famous Marshall Court decision in McCulloch vs. Maryland, which gave constitutional authority to the sweeping new powers the federal government was beginning to claim.
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