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Beckett found solace in repeating motifs in his work; scholars began collecting them in the Journal of Beckett Studies. In his plays, for example, characters are always paired, one character representing mind and one representing body; that is, one character represents our physical existence and one represents our self-consciousness, our mind and reasoning ability. The obvious example is the pairing of Gogo and Didi (shoes and hat) in Waiting for Godot, but also see Ohio Impromptu, where a Reader and a Listener are paired, or Footfalls, where a mother and daughter are paired. Another element, found glaringly in Endgame but present in all his pieces, is a barren landscape in which a small space (not always a room, but limiting and prison-like) contains all stage activity (in Godot it is the area around the tree); A third element present is the distant prospect from which false hope or rescue emerges (the view from the window in Endgame is reflected in the Boy’s arrival in Godot.) Happy Days, too, has all these elements. Of course, in some of his very short pieces, these elements are abbreviated or merely hinted at.
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