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The Second Great Awakening had two components. On the one hand, it was a spiritual awakening as people believed in Christ for the salvation of their sins. In this sense, it was like the First Great Awakening. On the other hand, it was a social awakening as well. The outflow of the Second Great Awakening lead to great social reforms. Part of the reason for this was the theology of the Second Great Awakening was amenable towards this direction. Arminianism stated that people had free choice to do good. This was different from the more deterministic Calvinism of the First Great Awakening.
The Reform movements and the Second Great Awakening were similar in that they aimed to make society into a better place. They wanted to transform culture.
The movements were different in one important sense. The Second Great Awakening was chiefly a religious movement and the reforms that flowed from it were an outcome of religious convictions. The reform movements were not all Christian and were chiefly a societal.
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