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John Locke is known as the father of Liberalism for his thoughts on natural rights and liberties. Locke believed that all people were equal and independent, and all people had the right to defend their “life, liberty and possessions” from destruction or theft. Locke also believed that people had to establish a civil society to resolve conflicts. He also believed that power within a civil government should be separated, and if governments become reckless with their powers, then revolution should occur.
Baron de Motesquieu’s views were similar is some respect. He also believed in a separation of legislative executive and judicial power. This was a radical departure from feudalistic structures in France. Montesquieu also believed that free governments had to rely on constitutional agreements to remain free.
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