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When the war came to an end in Europe, the nation of Germany was divided into four occupation zones. The zones had been predetermined at the Yalta Conference, with the Soviet Union occupying the Eastern portion and Great Britain, the United States, and France in charge of the West. The French occupation was not part of the plans at Yalta, but after Charles de Gaulle protested, a French zone was carved out of the British and American zones. In 1949, the three western zones were organized into the Federal Republic of Germany, and the Soviets formed the German Democratic Republic in the same year. The city of Berlin, despite its location entirely within the Soviet zone, was also organized into four zones that were later reorganized into East and West Berlin. In 1948 and 1949, the Soviets blockaded Berlin in an attempt to consolidate the city under their control, but the so-called "Berlin Airlift" by the British and American air forces supplied the population of Berlin until the blockade was lifted.
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