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A pastoral poem is one that has the countryside and shepherding as a subject. It portrays their life style and experience as idyllic. It may also be "pastoral" in the sense of a clergyman leading his congregation, or "pastoring his sheep."
Cavalier poetry has royal courts and loyalty to a monarch as a subject. It is often elegant, graceful, melodious with elegant diction.
Metaphysical poetry was ushered in with John Donne and investigates the nature of being and the structure of the universe, called respectively ontology and cosmology.
Petrarch's Sonnet 292 is a poem of grief and mourning for his lost love, purportedly "Laura" whom he loved from afar. This sonnet does not fit into any of the above categories: it does not speak of an idyllic country life as a shepherd; it does not speak of a monarch nor of courtly concerns; it does not philosophically investigate first principles nor the nature of reality by examining question of being or the universe.
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