What process causes the decomposition of water?
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The decomposition of water is caused by the process called electrolysis. This involves the passing of electricity through water, but the water must be added with a small amount of ionic compound or dilute sulphuric acid to it, which would make it a better conductor of electricity. The products in this process are two volumes of hydrogen at the cathode and one volume of oxygen at the anode.
There exists different processes, chemical or electrical, that help to decompose the water in its components, hydrogen and oxygen. Hence, these processes are able to break down the bonds in water molecule.
The electrical process is called water electrolysis and it is based on a electrical current that splits the water molecule in ions of hydroxide `(OH)^-` and hydrogen protons `H^+` .
The main problem in electrolysis is the production of CO_2 gas. The electrolysis does not produce itself `CO_2` , but the methods of producing the needed electrical current may release `CO_2` .
High temperature steam electrolysis is a method of producing hydrogen from water, using solar energy, hence, without releasing amounts of `CO_2` .
Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula H2O: one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom. Since oxygen has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen, water is a polar molecule. The oxygen has a slight negative charge while the hydrogens have a slight positive charge giving the article a strong effective dipole moment. The interactions between the different dipoles of each molecule cause a net attraction force associated with water's high amount of surface tension.
Water is a compound H2O. The process that causes the decomposition of water is electrolysis (passing electric current).
Electrolysis will help to break the bonds of the water molecule.
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