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- The arch. This allowed them to build such important things as aqueducts and large public buildings. The Romans originated this technology. The aqueducts were one of the most important Roman engineering developments because they allowed the Romans to get water from far away.
- Concrete. They were the first to use concrete and this allowed them to build multi-story buildings such as apartments. It also allowed them to build dock facilities because it could be used underwater.
- Roads. The Romans build tens of thousands of miles of paved roads.
The Romans also made huge advancement in military technology. Josephus the Jewish historian speaks about a few of the powerful weapons of the Romans.
The Romans also were able to use the plastic properties of the concrete to build fancier buildings.
The Romans also had the ability to flood amphitheaters to put on spectacle and even stage naval battles. This was quite amazing. There is a great article on this by C. Coleman in the Journal of Roman Studies.
Finally, the Romans also build great bridges.
For more information on Roman architecture, read the ancient Roman author, Vitruvius.
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