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The Renaissance was a cultural movement that started in Florence but spread throughout Europe. It started roughly in the 14th century and lasted until the 17th century. It started at different times in different places so there isn't really a specific date that it started. There are many theories in relation to why it started in Florence but most scholars agree that it had to do with the wealth that was there at the time.
Renaissance means "rebirth" and people had a new found passion for learning and art. Europe had previously witnessed catastrophic events such as the Black Death and war between England and France. There was a lot of death and despair and people were ready for a revival.
The renaissance probably began due to two factors, the fall of Constantinople (the most advanced city in Europe) in 1453, which drove all her scholars westwards to escape the invading Turks.
And the sacking of the great Muslim cities of Moorsih Spain which allowed western Christians access to the vast knowledge of the Islamic empire (which included, in Arabic, all the works of the Greeks)
The Renaissance is considered to have begun in Florence, Italy around the year 1350. The beginning of the Renaissance is also considered the end of the Middle Ages.
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that was characterized by a philosophical and ethical position called Humanism. In Italy, the humanist educational curricula has been very well welcomed and, by the middle of fifteenth century, the humanist education was given to the students of the upper classes.
The poet Francesco Petrarch, who lived in Florence in the 1300s, was called the "Father of Humanism". His work became an inspiration to many poets throughout all of Europe as the Renaissance expanded.
The Medieval Italian poet and philosopher, who wrote the trilogy "The Divine Comedy", was also a contributor of great importance to the beginning of the Renaissance.
Giotto's realistic painting style made him the the first painter who have started the Renaissance in art.
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