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They formed governments by elections, similar religions with seven major gods, numbers systems were similar in that both used non-decimal counting, both depended trade with tributary cites. Both alowed theater as a form of media. Both must have measured their beginning with they myth about Troy; for example the Venus de Milo is a Roman statue which shows Venus (aka Aphrodite) holding the golden apple in one hand and a mirror in the other. The awarding of the golden apple by Paris is said to have been the basis for the Trojan war, and Rome is said to have been founded in part by Torjans.
One major difference must have been how the Romans and Athenians felt about equality of citizens. The Athenians are said to have fired Phidias when he brought attention to himself by sculpting his likeness on a statue at the Parthenon. The Romans had no problem with citizens drawing attention to themselves by having their likeness on statues. Individual initiative must have been more common in Rome.
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