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What are some revolutions that occurred around the world within the past 75 years?
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If one limits a compilation of violent political transformations to revolutions and excludes coups d’etat, then the number is drastically reduced, as instances of the latter can fill a book by themselves. Revolution defined as a radical removal of one political regime with another, however, brings the discussion into more manageable parameters. Between 1938 and the present (2013), there has been nonstop political violence, but, until the outbreak of the so-called Arab Spring in 2011, genuine revolution has been less common. Also, whether liberation from foreign occupation through violent or peaceful means constitutes “revolution” for the purposes of discussion is uncertain. Clearly, the successful Vietnamese effort to defeat the French in 1954 could be considered revolutionary, as could the achievement of independence by East Timor between 1999 and 2002, or the successful break from Ethiopia on the part of Eritrea during the early 1990s. And, of course, India’s independence movement succeeded in achieving its goal in 1947 with Britain’s decision to withdraw from its most prized colony. A reasonable list, however, could look this: [Note: dates reflect final resolution of a revolutionary war, not the date at which it began]
1945: Vietnam’s August Revolution; Venezuela (probably more a coup, but included)
1952: Egypt; Bolivia
1956: Hungary (uprising against Soviet-installed government; deemed a revolution); Tibetan revolt against Chinese domination
1959: Cuba; Rwanda
1962: Yemen; Algeria
1963: Syria (probably more a coup, but included); Iran
1968: Republic of Congo; Czechoslovakia (uprising against Soviet-installed government)
1972: Benin; Malagasy Republic (Madagascar)
1974: Ethiopia; Portugal
1975: Angola; Cambodia; Laos; Vietnam; Cape Verde
1978: Afghanistan (more of a coup, but included)
1979: Grenada; Iran; Nicaragua
1989: Poland; East Germany; Romania; Czechoslovakia; China (failed rebellion at Tiananmen Square)
1991: Lithuania; Estonia; Latvia (achieve liberation from Soviet control); Iraqi Kurdistan; Ethiopia; Eritrea
1994: Mexico (Zapatista rebellion)
1996: Chechnya; Afghanistan
1999: Kosovo; Chechnya
2001: Macedonia; Philippines; Argentina
2002: East Timor
2003: Georgia; Darfur region of Sudan begins revolt
2005: Lebanon; Kyrgyzstan
2011-present: Tunisia; Libya; Egypt; Syria; Yemen
2012: Central African Republican
This list is fairly comprehensive, but not complete depending upon how one frames the discussion of what constitutes a revolution.
Posted by kipling2448 on October 15, 2013 at 3:19 AM (Answer #1)
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