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The most obvious example of irony is the fact that Reverend Dimmesdale is the man who committed adultery with Hester Prynne. The "goodwives" of the community remark in the second chapter about how "grieved" their "godly pastor" must be about Hester's scandalous behavior.
Some more minor examples of irony: Hester's letter A, which is meant as a punishment, is mesmerizingly beautiful. It also eventually comes to designate Hester as "Able" rather than its original negative meaning. Finally, the narrator informs us that Pearl is an ironic character: we are told that "God, as a direct consequence of the sin which man thus punished, had given [Hester] a lovely child" in return for her actions.
The most commonly noted occurrence of irony is when Hester refers to Reverend Dimmesdale as knowing her because he is her pastor, but in deed the reader learns that he knows her much more intimately than that!
I believe the most understated, yet most powerful occurrence of irony is when society begins to reference the "Scarlet Letter" <i>(A)<i> as being a symbol of her dedication and hard work, as in "Able". The very letter used to brand her as an adulteress is that which notes her in lofty, respectable regards!
Verbal and dramatic irony: From Chapter III, Governor Bellingham tells Dimmesdale, ". . . the responsibility of this woman's soul lies greatly with you."
Verbal irony: From Chapter IV, Chillingworth tells Hester, "Think not that I shall interfere with Heaven's own method of retribution." Chillingworth implies he will let God and Heaven handle all retribution, yet he sets out to destroy Dimmesdale himself.
Situational Irony: From Chapter II, the townspeople have created a situation in which they believe Hester will feel ashamed by wearing the A and having to stand on the scaffold, yet she has a "marked dignity and force of character" and holds her baby "with a burning blush, and yet a haughty smile, and a glance that would not be abashed, looked around at her townsepeople and neighbors."
Situational Irony: From Chapter XI, the townspeople worship Dimmesdale as a pristine role model "[deeming] the young clergyman a miracle of holiness" when he actually has committed an immoral act.
Dramatic Irony: The audience knows Dimmesdale is Hester's father long before anyone else does, and the audience knows Chillingsworth should not be trusted long before Dimmesdale figures that out.
Hawthorne use of irony to show the 'sour -peevish 'character of the Pilgrim forefathers is visible in the first chapter itself; where he berates the so called "utopia". The black flower of society - the prison is contrasted with the wild rose bush that thwarts the puritan attempt to stem dissidence. In any given society evil co-exists with good just as perversity with the spiritual bent of mind . The author is the descendent of the puritan immigrants ,but laments at the inhumane treatment meted out by them . The protagonist ,Hester Prynne proudly bears her illegitimate child and sports the letter "A" as if defying the Calvinistic doctrine. Hawthorne through Hester questions the cowardice in both her lover- Arthur Dimmesdale and spouse, Roger Chillingsworth.The former ,a devoted minister in puritan Boston and the latter a revered man of science.
Irony has been used to denigrate the societal norms and the so -called God's chosen people- be it the iron visaged Dames , the clergy, or the the needy .Infact irony helps us- examine the agonised soul of the tormented Hester ;understand her her plight as the second citizen .
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