What are the similarities and differences between job analysis and competency models?
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The major similarity between these two is that they both have the same purpose. Both are meant to identify the requirements for performing a given task. Both can be used to figure out what sort of person (or what specific person) should be selected for a given job.
The major difference is that job analysis looks at the details of the job while the competency model looks at the attributes of the person. In the job analysis model, extensive data is gathered about what a particular job actually entails. It is then important to go out and find a person who can do those things (or can be trained to do them). By contrast, the competency model focuses on "KSAOs." That stands for "Knowledge," "Skills," "Abilities," and "Other individual characteristics. Such an analysis tries to determine what KSAOs are needed in order to excel at a given job. It focuses on the person rather than on the task.
Both approaches can be useful and both have the same goal, but they go about reaching that goal in very different ways.
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