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There are at least 7 literary devices used throughout Macbeth. Here are 7 with an example of each. There may be others, but these will suffice.
Irony: It's mostly ironic that Macbeth was named Thane of Cawdor to take place of a man who was treacherous--only Macbeth becomes even worse than treacherous. He lives to the extent of treachery.
Foreshadowing: When the reader finds that Macbeth will become "Thane of Cawdor," it foreshadows his future of being King.
Theme: The overall theme of the play is about ambition and what extreme the characters go to in order to achieve what they want.
Symbol : The blood on Lady Macbeth's hands represents her guilt in Act III.
Soliloquy: Macbeth's famous soliloquy occurs in Act II when he sees the floating dagger before him and says, "Is this a dagger I see before me?"
Aside: (In Act I, Scene 3) when Ross tells Macbeth of his new title, Thane of Cawdor, Macbeth has an aside that says how he knows now that he will eventually become king because of the prophesies.
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