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The Second Continental Congress did some very important things to create the United States and to get it organized. It also was important for the fact that it led the colonies (or the country, depending on how you want to look at it) through the Revolutionary War.
The Second Continental Congress convened soon after the Battles of Lexington and Concord started the fighting in the Revolutionary War. At that time, it was still not clear if the colonies were going to fight for independence or just for some sort of change in the way they were governed.
This uncertainty showed in one of the most famous things the Congress did. This was the "Olive Branch Petition" of July, 1775 in which the Congress tried to patch up the colonies' differences with England. When that failed, the Congress took its most important and famous action. This was when it issued the Declaration of Independence in July of 1776.
The second most important thing the Congress did was to create the Articles of Confederation. This was the first constitution of the United States and it served as a way to keep the colonies/states together through the war and the first few years of independence.
The most important actions the Congress took then, were the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. It also ran the country as much as was possible during the Revolutionary War.
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