What is the relationship between DNA and genes?
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Genes are the segments of DNA. DNA is the whole genome and it contains coding sequences as well as non-coding sequences and the coding sequences are the genes. A gene codes for a protein. A full single gene can be present at one place on DNA, or fragments or parts of a single gene may be present at different locations on DNA with non-coding region in between.
Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA is the material that is located in the cell's nucleus that makes up the chromosomes and genes. Its molecule is in the shape of a double helix. The arrangement of nitrogenous bases in DNA determines an organism's traits. Every three bases is a triplet and codes for a particular amino acid. Amino acids joined together form a polypeptide and polypeptides make up proteins. Each gene, a distinct segment of DNA codes for a different protein. Proteins are important molecules as they are structural parts of an organism, can be enzymes or hormones. If a gene has a mutation, the protein may have limited or no function. This can cause a disease or death in an organism.
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