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Many philosophers address the topic of philosophy of education. Plato, in both Republic and Laws, and many of his other dialogues, suggests that education is the basis for moral development. Aristotle also has extended discussions of education in the Politics, Nicomachean Ethics, and to a degree, the Poetics. He believes that since virtue is a habit as much a simply a matter of knowledge, the role of education is to inculcate good habits. Many Roman theorists discuss education. Although he is usually classed as a rhetorician, Quintilian's Institutes are our most complete account of ancient theories and practices of education. Martianus Capella's De nuptiis also presents a global account of the nature of and reasons for education. Augustine, in De magistro, De doctrina christiana, and Confessions discussions ideals of Christian education. Hugh of St. Victor's Didascalicon is a comprehensive medieval philosophy of education, as is John of Salisbury's Metalogicon. For the Renaissance and modern period, you might examine Erasmus (Ratio studii), John Locke, the Autobiography of John Stuart Mill and the works of John Dewey.
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