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Jacobean literature was the work written around the time of England’s King James I. The themes of the work were usually dark and negative work questioning the social order of the day. The themes debated the stability of the society the authors lived in and were tragic and sad. The Jacobean period followed the Elizabethan period of literature. Some of Shakespeare’s best tragedies were written during this era. Other well known writers of the day were John Webster, Ben Johnson Francis Bacon and Robert Burton. The most famous work to surface from this period was the King James Version of the “Holy Bible.”
The Restoration period of literature was created during the rule of Charles II in the late 1600’s and continued through the beginning of the 1700’s. The themes of the more successful authors of this era were anti-Puritan literature. The Puritan religion was very powerful during this period and the backlash from writers was evident in works by William Congreve, John Dryden, and John Milton. The literature is often described as “lewd, witty, and urbane.”
"The ascension of James I to the English throne in 1603 marked an era of social and philosophical transition that was reflected in the increasingly dark and ambiguous drama of the period."
"The term “restoration” in Restoration drama refers to the return of the monarchy to England after something more than a decade of Puritan rule. From September 2, 1642, when Parliament proclaimed that “while these sad causes and set times of humiliation do continue, public stage-plays shall cease, and be forborne,” until August 21, 1660, when King Charles II granted patents to Thomas Killigrew and Sir William Davenant to establish theaters, drama in England led a precarious existence."
Jacobean to Restoration Age /(1603-1700) /The longest period nearly hundred years in the history of England.This period is divided into following 3 historical periods.
1. The Jacobean Age.(1603-1625).In this period after Queen Elizabeth ,James 1 ascended the throne.
2. The Caroline Age or The Age of Charles 1(1625-1649)
3. The Interim period of Commonwealth (1649-1660) :
Commonwealth Period extended from the end of the Civil War and the excursion Charles I in 1649 to the restoration of the Stuart monarchy under Charles II in 1600. Dramas disappeared for almost eighteen years after the puritans closed the public theaters in September 1642, not only on moral and religious grounds, but also to prevent public gatherings and assemblies that might create civil disorder. It was the age of Milton's political pamphlets, of Hobbes's political treatise Leviathan (1651) of the prose writers like Sir Thomas Browne, Abraham Cowley and Andrew Marwell.
4.The period of Restoration of Charles 2.(1660-1685)
5. James 2 (1685-1688).
6..The Socio-Cultural Aftermath of the Restoration (upto 1700)
After the glorious and glamorous period of Queen Elizabeth,the reign of James ! showed a sharp decline in every field of national life.The spirit of Renaissance,the craze for learning,the spirit for daring voyages for the discovery of new lands,and the solidarity of England which had all touched the high water mark during the Elizabethan Age started declining like spent up forces.Several kinds of dissipating forces,specially in the domain of religion,had started emerging and weakening the nation.
Major authors and poets of this period are John Donne,John Milton,John Dryden,Samuel Butler,
Caroline poets-Andrew Marwell,Richard Lovelace,Sir John Suckling,Francis Quaries,Thomas Carew,Robert Herrick.
The restoration period marked an influx of theater where William Wycherley and George Etherege developed a genre of Comedy of manners. The Country Wife, William Wycherley's play centered around the nuances of bawdy language and semi-aristocratic flavor that delivered the eccentricities of characters with their names suggesting their counter characters, thus the play is allegorical with a completeness of its own. The Augustus age novelist and journalist Daniel Defoe and Lady Mary Wortley wrote poems of wit, candor and conviction.
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