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Cold war refers to the intense rivalry that developed between communist and non-communist countries after World War II. The communist countries, led by U.S.S.R. are also called East Block while non-communist countries, led by U.S.A. are also called West Block. Countries that did not wish to get entangled with these rivalry between communist and non-communist and formed a separate group called referred as non-aligned countries.
Towards the close of World War II, in 1945 the allied countries entered into an agreement to hold independent democratic election in liberated countries. However, after the war, U.S.S.R. under the leadership of Stalin did not honour this agreement. Stalin wanted to establish communist government in all liberated territories under its control and to achieve this objective effectively cut-off all relationship of these countries under its control. As a result, by 1948 countries such as Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Albania and Yugoslavia had communist governments.
U.S.A, and other democratic countries in Europe were determined not to let communism spread to their countries, and were suspicious of intentions of U.S.S.R.. They also collaborated to ward of the threat posed by communism and U.S.S.R.. President Harry Trueman of U.S.A. promised in 1947 to help any free nation resist communist attack. Separate groups of West and East blocks countries were formed in United Nations Organization also. Further the Western Block countries formed the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) in 1949.
The cold war rivalry became more intense with each of the two blocks trying to outdo each other in field of development of nuclear weapons capable of striking targets over long distances. This rivalry is often called the Arms Race.
After death of Stalin in 1953 the cold war activities became more intense with U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. opposing separate government and groups in different regions such as Korea, Vietnam, and Afghanistan. The support sometimes took the form of direct military interventions.
However by 1970's a realization slowly came over both the group that in an all out nuclear war there will be no victors, and the cold war rivalry is not in the interest of either side. Also there were growing splits within both the groups. For example U.S.S.R. and China developed differences and France Withdrew its troops from NATO command.
As a result agreements such as Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) and Missile Reduction Agreement were reached between U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. in 1972 and1987 respectively. In 1989 communist rule came to end in many east European Countries. East and West Germany were unified in 1990. In 1991 the Communist Party lost control over U.S.S.R. government, and the country itself divided in different countries. This event is generally considered by many as the point marking end of the Cold War.
eNotes offers a free guide on the Cold War. Please check out this link for a few essential facts.
You should know these topics:
- the two competing economic systems of capitalism and Marxism
- the 1917 Russian Revolution and the West responses to the Revolution
- World War II, the Allies, and U.S.-Soviet relations
- the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences (what the U.S. and U.S.S.R. wanted!)
- the development of the atomic bomb
- President Truman, and the Berlin Airlift
- the Chinese Civil War and the Korean War (American responses to each conflict)
- the Independence movements in the world (Africa and Asia)
- McCarthyism (anti-communism) in America
- President Eisenhower and Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
- President Kennedy and Latin America
- President Johnson and President Nixon, and the Vietnam War
- anti-Soviet revolts in Eastern Europe (1950s-1960s)
- The Space Race
- the Seven Days War and the Yom Kippur War (Middle East)
- Detente and S.A.L.T. (1970s)
- President Reagan, the Evil Empire, and the Reagan Doctrine
- Mikhail Gorbachev, glasnost, perestroika
grade 10 is a very lower standard class. all u need to do is know The Cold War (approx. 1945–1991) was a continuing state of political and military tension between the powers of the western world, led by the United States and its NATO allies, and the communist world, led by the Soviet Union, its states and allies. This began after the success of their temporary wartime alliance against Germans, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. The Soviet Union created the Eastern bloc with the eastern European countries it occupied, maintaining these as states. The post-war recovery of Western Europe was facilitated by the United States' Marshall while the Soviet Union, wary of the conditions attached, declined and set up COMCON with its Eastern allies. The United States forged NATO, a military alliance using containment of communism as a main strategy through the TRUMAN Doctrine, in 1949, while the Soviet bloc formed theWarsaw Pact in 1955. Some countries aligned with either of the two powers, whilst others chose to remain neutral with the Non alleiged states.
if u dont know any of the terminologies, try googling them.=)
- YALTA CONFERENCE + potsdame
- Hiroshma bomb
- turmun doctrin+marshall plan
- Berlin Blockade
- north Koria and south Koria war
- Warsaw pact
- hugarian uprising
- U2 CRISIS
- Berlin Wall
- cuban missle crisis
- gorbachev and the collapse of communism
I don't what they do in USA but In England all history tests are in essay formate ,so you should learn how to write a essay
If you need more you can message me i am an expert on this topic ,it my fav :)
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