What are the literary devices used in Macbeth's soliloquy in Act 3, Scene 1 of Macbeth?
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Numerous literary devices exist in Macbeth's speech in Act III, Scene 1 of Shakespeare's Macbeth. I'll start you off with one, metaphor. When Macbeth says:
Our fears in Banquo stick deep,...
he is comparing the fear he has for Banquo (since Banquo is noble, self-controlled, and wise) to something piercing his body, a dagger or sword, maybe. His fear is the tenor of the metaphor and "stick deep" is the vehicle. In other words, Macbeth explains or elaborates on his fear by comparing it to a deep wound.
A second metaphor is used when Macbeth says:
Upon my head they [the witches] placed a fruitless crown,...
Here, his crown is compared to a fruitless tree, of course.
The depiction of Macbeth's ambition is furthered in this speech. Before he attained the crown, Macbeth didn't give a second thought to the fact that he alone would rule but not his heirs (according to the witches). But once he has it, as we see, that is no longer enough.
To be thus is nothing;
But to be safely thus.--Our fears in Banquo
Stick deep; and in his royalty of nature
Reigns that which would be fear'd: 'tis much he dares;
And, to that dauntless temper of his mind,
He hath a wisdom that doth guide his valour
To act in safety. There is none but he
Whose being I do fear: and, under him,
My Genius is rebuked; as, it is said,
Mark Antony's was by Caesar. He chid the sisters
When first they put the name of king upon me,
And bade them speak to him: then prophet-like
They hail'd him father to a line of kings:
Upon my head they placed a fruitless crown,
And put a barren sceptre in my gripe,
Thence to be wrench'd with an unlineal hand,
No son of mine succeeding. If 't be so,
For Banquo's issue have I filed my mind;
For them the gracious Duncan have I murder'd;
Put rancours in the vessel of my peace
Only for them; and mine eternal jewel
Given to the common enemy of man,
To make them kings, the seed of Banquo kings!
Rather than so, come fate into the list.
And champion me to the utterance! Who's there!
- Metaphor - "our fears in Banquo stick deep"
- Metaphor - "dauntless temper of his mind"
- Personification - "wisdom that doth guide his valor"
- Simile - "then prophet like"
- Imagery - "fruitless crown", "barren sceptre"
- Metaphor - "rancours in the vessel of my peace"
- Metaphor - "and mine eternal jewel
Given to the common enemy of man,"
Now, YOU try some - first try to figure out what he is saying, then look at the language again and see how these thoughts are expressed poetically. For example, the "fruitless crown" and "barren sceptre" refer to the fact that Macbeth will have no sons to reign after he is gone, unlike Banquo.
See the analysis on eNotes for further help.
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