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Hemingway uses a variety of literary devices throughout The Old Man and the Sea as he creates word pictures to tell the story of Santiago's world and of his great struggle.
Some would say that the entire story is an allegory, comparing Santiago to Jesus in his suffering. Alliteration is featured when Hemingway describes the "flying fish" and the "full-blooded fish" he caught. Alliteration and onomatopoeia are both present in describing how fish "left the water and the hissing that their stiff set wings made as they soared away."
Hemingway uses similes in passages such as "The clouds over the land now rose like mountains." When Hemingway says the Portuguese man-of-war "floated cheerfully as a bubble" or when Santiago goes past "a great island of Sargasso weed that heaved and swung in the light sea as though the ocean were making love with something under a yellow blanket," he is using personification. Santiago talks to himself at times, with his monologues including Spanish words and phrases at times.
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The literary devices (elements and techniques) that Ernest Hemingway uses in the novella The Old Man and The Sea include:
A distinct protagonist
In this story the protagonist is Santiago. He is an old fisherman who is still trying to battle the elements and his own weaknesses to continue fishing and support himself.
A distinct setting
The setting of the novella for most of the action is the Gulf Stream and this is where Santiago wages his battle against the forces of nature.
Conflict is essential to excellent drama. Conflict in The Old Man and The Sea is the battle between the giant marlin and Santiago as he tries to haul this huge catch in. Conflict is also Santiago versus the sharks; these sharks end up destroying the marlin and leave nothing really for Santiago to bring to market for money.
Conflict in the story also involves Santiago against himself – man against himself. This is when someone battles their fears, physical weaknesses, inhibitions, and more as they seek to achieve a goal. It is a matter of someone overcoming faults and/or weaknesses to achieve a goal or a certain kind of success.
Hemingway moves the story along at a brisk pace through the use of crisp and direct dialogue.
An example of simile in The Old Man and the Sea is in this line:
His shirt had been patched so many times that it was like the sail...
Santiago’s shirt is being compared to a sail. With so many patches it resembled the sail. Here we see two different objects compared so as to see the likeness between them.
The reader, through imagery, can understand the characteristics of the big fish (with its distinct sword) through the use of imagery, as in this passage:
His sword was as long as a baseball bat and tapered like a rapier…
This type of literary device brings the reader into the mind of a character. In this story, the reader understands more about Santiago through his internal monologues. An example is this passage as he thinks about and battles the great fish:
He is a great fish and I must convince him, he thought. I must never let him learn his strength nor what he could do if he made his run.
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