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The basic question that Diamond is trying to answer in this book is that of why some cultures or countries became strong and rich while others did not. Specifically, he is asking why the Europeans were able to go out and conquer other people back in the age of exploration rather than having those people (like the Incas) go and conquer them.
Diamond's basic thesis is that it is all down to luck. He says that some areas were luckier, geographically speaking. They had geographical advantages that allowed them to develop agriculture first. This allowed them to develop the "guns, germs, and steel" that allowed them to go and conquer the world.
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