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The main thing that fueled the growth of the post-Civil War economy was industrialization. Specifically, the growth in heavy industry was behind this boom.
The most important two parts of this boom were the boom in railroads and the steel boom that allowed it to happen and fed off of it. After the Civil War, a new process for making steel became widely used. It made steel quicker and cheaper than had previously been possible. This helped allow the huge boom in railroads as the transcontinental lines were being built. The boom in railroads helped to create a national market that allowed for rapid growth in the US economy.
Thus, railroads and steel were the main drivers of this economic growth.
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