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The plants grow predominantly in amphibious habitat through some forms like Riccia fluitans, Ricciocarpos natans and Rellia species are aquatic. The gametophytes are well developed, green and autotrophic to which the sporophytes are not only attached but are also physically and physiologically dependent. The plant body consists of simple parenchymatous cells. Xylem, phloem and lignified cells are completely absent. The fertilisation takes place in presence of water. The spermatozoid swims to the neck of archegonium. It passes through the canal formed by the disintegration of neck canal cells and ventral canal cells and fuses with the egg.
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