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There were a number of factors that contributed to this rise.
First, there was the fact that the Greek poleis were in a fairly chaotic state. There were shifting alliances among the various poleis and there was no established dominant power by the mid-300s BC. A second factor was the fact that Macedonia had more natural resources than the Greek peninsula did. Third, we can point to the fact that Macedonia was subject to repeated attacks from the west and north, leading them to need to emphasize military prowess in order to survive.
However, the rise of Macedonia is still a surprise of history. The most important factors seem to be personal ones. Both Phillip of Macedonia and his son, Alexander the Great, were clearly superior leaders with great charisma and ability. Their actions, both diplomatic and military, were the major factors that accounted for the rise of Macedonia.
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