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The distance of each planet from the Sun varies through their respective year as their orbits are not perfectly circular. Each planet has a "closest" point (perihelion) and a "farthest" point (aphelion). With this knowledge, and the general understanding of the size of the Solar System (to its farthest orbiting planet, usually considered the dwarf planet Pluto) the distance of each planet from the Sun can be estimated. Note: the distance of the Earth to the Sun is considered the standard "Astronomical Unit," often used in determining distances throughout the Solar System.
Mercury: Average: 57 million km
Venus: Average: 108 million km
Earth: Average: 150 million km - 1 A.U.
Mars: Average: 228 million km
Jupiter: Average: 779 million km
Saturn: Average: 1.43 billion km
Uranus: Average: 2.88 billion km
Neptune: Average: 4.50 billion km
Pluto: Average: 5.91 billion km
(Average distances from universetoday.com)
One interesting fact about these average distances is that there is a period during which Pluto is closer to the Sun than Neptune; this is because of their elliptical orbits, and because Pluto's perihelion is inside Neptune's. The last time this happened was 1999.
It varies based on the time of year. Their orbits are not a perfect circle but I can give you a range for each planet.
Mercury: 46.0 million km - 69.8 million km
Venus: 108 million km - 109 million km
Earth: 146 million km - 152 million km
Mars: 205 million km - 249 million km
Jupiter: 741 million km - 817 million km
Saturn: 1.35 billion km - 1.5 billion km
Uranus: 2.7 billion km - 3 billion km
Neptune: 4.46 billion km - 4.54 billion km
Pluto: 4.437 billion km - 7.376 billion km
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