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This is a broad question as narratives and short stories come in many shapes and sizes. However, it is important to remember the differences between a "narrative" and "short story".
A narrative can be thought of as a personal story told in a descriptive form (like a personal narrative essay) and is based on personal point of view. One famous narrative is Mark Twain's Two Views of the Mississippi River. In addition to personal narratives, there are narrative poems, for example Poe's Annabel Lee, a poetic descriptive story told from a personal point of view. A narrative is reflective and shares a lesson or thematic message. Ben Franklin's historical narrative, The Whistle, shares a personal historical account of his younger years.
Short stories, although narrative in form, are fictional and contain distinct elements of plot: exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and denouement. One of my favorite short stories, by Richard Connell, is the Most Dangerous Game, a classic short story, exhibiting strong characterization, purposeful setting, plot and thematic development, suspense, and conflict. However, in addition to this kind of typical and classic short story, there are other forms of storytelling: fables (such as Aesop's Fables), parables (as with the Parable of the Mustard Seed), myths (my favorite creation myth, The World on the Turtle's Back), and vignettes (a strong example includes Sandra Cisneros' House on Mango Street).
There are many different types and kinds of narratives and short stories. They are actually not the exact same, as one can have a narrative but not have a short story. However, most times a short story is a narrative (because it will most always be told by a narrator). So, narratives include short stories such as The Cask of Amontillado, as well as novels such as The Great Gatsby.
Hope this helps!
Some types of narratives are fable, myths, legend, fairytales, science fiction story, anecdote, short stories, parables, novels, and horror story.
A personal narrative, an autobiography, a poem, a short story, a novel, or any literary work. It can also be used in fine art for pictoral illustrative narrations.
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The narrative mode (also known as the mode of narration) is the set of methods the author of a literary, theatrical, cinematic, or musical story uses to convey the plot to the audience. Narration, the process of presenting the narrative, occurs because of the narrative mode. It encompasses several overlapping areas of concern, most importantly narrative point-of-view, which determines through whose perspective the story is viewed; narrative voice, which determines the manner through which the story is communicated to the audience; narrative structure, which determines in what order events are presented; and narrative tense, which determines with what sense of time the story is expressed, whether in the past, present, or future.
The person who is used to tell the story is called the "narrator," a character developed by the author expressly for the purpose of relating events to the audience. The experiences and observations related by the narrator are not generally to be regarded as those of the author, though in some cases (especially in non-fiction), it is possible for the narrator and author to be the same person. However, the narrator may be a fictive person devised by the author as a stand-alone entity, or even a character. The narrator is considered participant if an actual character in the story, and nonparticipant if only an implied character, or a sort of omniscient or semi-omniscient being who does not take part in the story but only relates it to the audience.
Ability to use the different points of view is one measure of a person's writing skill. The writing mark schemes used for National Curriculum assessments in England reflect this: they encourage the awarding of marks for the use of viewpoint as part of a wider judgment.
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