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When offspring are produced with only one parent, this is known as asexual reproduction. The offspring will be genetically identical to that parent because there isn't a fusion of gametes that occurs during sexual reproduction. Protists, Archaea and Bacteria reproduce asexually as do fungi and plants. Even certain animals can do this--hydra, sponges, flatworms for example. Asexual reproduction can be accomplished by a variety of methods. In binary fission, a cell divides into two cells, but the nucleus undergoes mitosis, insuring that the daughter cells each have the chromosomes they need to function. In budding, an uneven cell division after mitosis occurs, resulting in a bud that is smaller but genetically identical to the parent cell. This occurs in hydra, yeast and others. Fungi carry out sporulation. Mitosis gives rise to thousands of tiny spores that have the same chromosome number as the parent organism. After dispersal, they grow into new fungi, identical to the parent. Vegetative propagation is a type of asexual reproduction that occurs in some plants. A vegetative or growing part--from the stem, root or leaf can be grown into new plants. One way is doing a cutting and it eventually grows into a new plant. Another is via a tuber or bulb that grows into a clone of the original plant. Runners, rhizomes, stolons can spread and give rise to more plants, identical to the original parent plant. There is no difference between asexual reproduction and vegetative propagation in plants. Vegetative propagation is a type of asexual reproduction.
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