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Bacteria are prokaryotes--their genetic material is not contained within a nucleus. Because they are also so small, it is easier to get the necessary products of photosynthesis and respiration to all parts of the (one-celled) organism, than it is in eukaryotes. In eukaryotic plants, photosynthesis takes place within the chloroplasts, and respiration in the mitochondria. In prokaryotes such as bacteria, it is not necessary to have specific organelles devoted to these functions as, again, the cells are so small. These process instead take place in the cytoplasmic membrane, in extensions or infoldings. The link I attached has a great, simple list of the major differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
Organism in which the nuclear material is not bounded by a definite nuclear membrane are called prokaryotes,e.g bacteria and blue green algae.Organisms in which the nucleus has a definite nuclear membrane are known as eukaryotes,e.g all other plants and animals.
In eukaryotes photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts whereas in prokaryotes definite chloroplasts are abesent.Respiration in eukaryotes takes place in mitochondria whereas in prokaryotes definite structures for respiration are not required.It occures inside the living cells.Respiration is of two types i.e aerobic and anaerobic.Aerobic respiration is common in higher plants whereas anaerobic respiration is common in certain microorganisms.
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