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The Peace of Westphalia (1648) is the term used for a series of treaties that ended both the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) and the Eighty Years' War (1568-1648). The treaties were signed in Osnabruck, Lower Saxony (Germany); and Munster, Westphalia (Germany), creating peace between the Dutch Republic and Spain (ending the Eighty Years' War); and the warring between the Holy Roman Empire, the House of Habsburg, France, Sweden, Spain and other city-states (concluding the Thirty Years' War).
The Edict of Nantes (1598) was signed by France's King Henry IV and granted French Protestants (Calvinists and Huguenots) new liberties in the predominantly Catholic country. It provided Protestants with amnesty and renewed civil rights and brought an end to the French Religious Wars of the 16th century. It was not viewed happily in Rome, however, where Pope Clement VIII declared, "This crucifies me."
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