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The climax is when Scrooge is shown his own grave by the mysterious, silent Phantom of the Future, and is absolutely terrified. He is terrified not only by the vision of his own death but also the build-up to this vision in which no-one showed any grief at all over his death. He is utterly appalled at this idea of himself dying alone, mourned by nobody. It is the manner of his death that scares him rather than the thought of death itself. This is what spurs him on to completely change his ways and be a kind, caring person for the rest of his life, and we're told that he does so very successfully. This is the very heart of the novel - the great transformation that is wrought in Scrooge by the visit of the Three Spirits. It is, essentially, a moral tale.
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