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Harappan society entered a period of decline about 1900 B.C.E. There is evidence of deforestation as woodlands were cleared to create more arable land to feed a growing population. This deforestation in turn led to reduced rainfall and erosion of the topsoil, as a result of which the area soon became a desert. To this day, it requires considerable irrigation to be farmed. There is further evidence of some natural catastrophes, possibly earthquakes, which further weakened the society. It is important to note that there is no evidence of military conflict, so the decline of the society was not the result of conquest. Also, the decline did not happen overnight, or even in a single lifetime. It most likely occurred over a period of five hundred years. By 1500 B.C.E., the society had collapsed. Still, its influence remained with the people who survived them, including their deities and their cultivation practices.
- the decline of the harrapan civilization could have been brought about by several reasons.
- there is a possibility that an earthquake could have destroyed the civilization
- there is a chance that river indus could have changed its course and flooded up the place.
- another reason could be that the invasion of the aryans could have caused the downfall of the civilization
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