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What were the causes and effects of Pearl Harbor?

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amazona0125 | Honors

Posted August 16, 2008 at 2:28 PM via web

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What were the causes and effects of Pearl Harbor?

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kpl1111 | High School Teacher | (Level 2) Adjunct Educator

Posted August 17, 2008 at 4:03 AM (Answer #2)

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Pearl Harbor is an American base in Hawaii.  The Japanese felt that America's involvement in the World War was inevitable.  America had already been "stern" with Japan about its expansion in the Pacific (America stopped providing valuable resources to Japan) because America had interests in the Philippines.  Japan wanted to preemptively strike so that it could cripple American forces.  It did so somewhat successfully.  The Japanese attack on Pearl Harborcaused about 2400 dead, almst 200 planes destroyed and 8 battleships destroyed or damaged. The long-term effect of Pearl Harbor was that it brought in the US to the war.  It pushed Americans into the war that they were avoiding for so long.  The Americans fought a long and hard front in the Pacific trying to avenge the attack on Pearl Harbor. 

Sources:

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revolution | College Teacher | Valedictorian

Posted August 15, 2010 at 12:06 AM (Answer #3)

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Pearl Harbor was the US's Pacific Fleet's Hawaiian base. The reason why USA has a large naval fleet there was that they saw Japan's aggressive expansionlist policy as a direct threat to its nation, so the Naval Fleet was stationed there, and more troops deployed to Philippines and the rest of the Pacific.

Ther reason why Japan attacked Pearl Harbor was that USA placed an embargo on Japan on its steel, scrap metal and oil supply, and this considered to be a threat to Japan's survival, so they hatch plans to take revenge against USA by striking back.

USA was planning to stop Japan's plans on controlling Asia-Pacific so Japanese military leaders felt that Japan had to attack US Pacific fleet in order to cripple the USA's ability to fight a war in Asia-Pacific and act as a warning to USA not to intefere. Also, Japan would be in a better position to fight off American attempts of invasion, as it would have enough time to built up troops to protect the countries it had conquered in that continent.

So, on Sunday, 7 December 1941, the Japanese fleet arrived at Pearl Harbor without any sort of notice and attacked with gusto. It was partly a success with the sinking of 3 battleships, and the destruction of 300 aircraft and more than 2000 dead but it was not enough as many US aircraft carriers and battleships escaped the attack. This awaken the "sleeping dragon" and forced them to break away from their isolationist policy and into real warfare. They joined in the war as one of the Allied members and counter-attack Japan as a form of revenge and vengenance over its naval destruction. This brought about the collapse of Japan empire and its "Greater East Asia Co-Propserity Sphere.

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a831 | Student , Undergraduate | eNoter

Posted June 26, 2011 at 8:37 AM (Answer #4)

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They were trying to take over manchuria and go against the UN and were afraid we would join the allies and go against them in world war 2 so the wanted to cripple the US by destroying Pearl Harbor
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truthseekah | Salutatorian

Posted July 18, 2011 at 5:17 AM (Answer #5)

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The US had done everything it could to bait the Japanese into attacking.  Whether it was known ahead of time or not (lots of coincidences), it used Pearl Harbor as a catalyst to entering the war.  One cannot argue that prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor, the populous was not in support of war.

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hpus12 | Student , Grade 10 | Salutatorian

Posted August 18, 2011 at 3:05 PM (Answer #6)

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Causes include the need of the Japanese to show they had superiority of Asia and the Pacific. They were sure that the USA would become involved in their claims in Asia, and they wanted to destroy our Navy, the 7th Fleet, based at Pearl Harbor. Our people thought the attack would be in the Philippines.
Rumor suggests the before the Japanese could declare War, making the attack legitimate, the State Department kept the Japanese Delegates waiting while they tried to break the code of a message they had intercepted to the Japanese Ambassador.
The effects were outrage and thrust us into War in the Pacific, as well as Europe. The aforementioned rumor is fueled by a meeting between Churchill and FDR prior to this attack where Winston asked his cousin to have the USA intercede in the War in Europe. We fought in Europe for a year before we bagan our War in the Pacific.

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mksb | Student | Salutatorian

Posted September 10, 2011 at 7:19 PM (Answer #7)

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Japanese imperial leadership felt that they were "entitled" to the Hawaiian Islands, and since we were already there they felt that they had the right to drive us out. Japanese leaders told their people that since the Japanese people were more "genetically pure" they would be able to bring a war to the United States that we would not be able to endure because of our genetic inferiority. The U.S. and Japan had actually been in diplomatic talks at the time of the attack. They were successful in catching the Americans with most of the Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor. They made the mistake of awakening a sleeping giant. Here is more input: Japan invaded mainland China (they already had Manchuria, the north east part of China)in 1936. This brought about much tension between the U.S. and Japan, as the Americans were allies of the Chinese. The U.S. demanded that Japan withdraw from China and Indochina (but would have settled for a token withdrawal and a promise not to take more territory). General Hideki set November 29 as the last day on which Japan would accept a settlement without war. His deadline, which was kept secret, meant that war was going to happen. So, because America's and Japan's terms collided, so did their expectations therefore causing Japan to react. Japan wanted to become self-sufficient in resources such as coal, rice, and rubber. The pacific ocean was full of these, but unfortunately the U.S. was there as well. For many years before Pearl Harbor, the US had been placing trade embargoes on Japan. They limited their trading with the Japanese, and persuaded other countries not to trade with them. This boycotting of goods and trade did not please the Japanese at all because they were a growing empire and needed trade to survive. After Japan invaded French Indochina, the U.S. froze Japanese assets and cut off iron supplies. This infuriated the Japanese and made them even more certain that they needed a larger pacific empire. WWII was a war with 3 nations - Italy, Germany and Japan - all believing they were the ultimate race, that all other nations were inferior to them. The United States was involved through providing financial aide and supplies to the allied forces but they had not stepped up to get involved yet. Japan felt that attacking the US would provide them an easy win, and a country with a lot of land and resources to rule once they did defeat us. Japan attacked at 07:55am on December 7, 1941. They only sent 2 of the 3 waves of attacking forces before deciding enough damage had been done. But they knew that the U.S. were not going to sit back after the attack on them either. They did not have their aircraft carriers in harbor at the time so their navy was not wiped out. The Japanese forces made for home preparing for retaliation. A large amount of the weapons used against the Americans by Japan were made from their scrap metal to top it off. cause for the bombing of pearl harbor Japan lead a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7 1941, because President Roosevelt decide to no longer trade with Japan. Japan would no longer get scrap metal and oil they needed for their war activities, which made them angry. Japan no longer saw America as their ally. Also Japan thought that they were entitled to the Hawaiian islands.
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beartrapstrong | Honors

Posted September 19, 2011 at 1:25 AM (Answer #8)

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One direct result of the attack was the overwhelming of the troops at Bataan in the Philipines. Only a few hours after the attack at pearl harbor the airfield at clark on battan was bombed. Over the next three months the american and filipinos actually destroyed an entire Japanese regiment, but the Japanese were able to send a fresh regiment. The fleet at pearl harbor were unable to come to the defense of bedraggled soldiers and 72,000 soldiers were taken prisoner. Most died of starvation in Japanese POW camps before a few were rescued 3 years later.

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freshondafield | Student , Grade 9 | eNoter

Posted September 28, 2011 at 3:21 AM (Answer #9)

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One of the major effects of Pearl Harbor here in the states was the camos were we kept American Japanese people during the war, fearing that they would stand up for there mother country and fight on the side were there ancestprs dwelled.  This Just shows how fear can drive a nation to treat a certain minority so horribly and show no respect.

 

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patelmilia98 | Student , Grade 9 | Valedictorian

Posted October 12, 2011 at 6:58 AM (Answer #10)

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cause:Japan wanted to control all of the islands of the Pacific and US Navy was considered to be an impediment to the Japanese plans.

Effect:It forced the U.S into a war with Japan; a war that ended in the unleashing of the world's 1st, and hopefully last, the use of the nuclear bomb in an attempt to defeat an enemy.

 

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danimai | Honors

Posted October 13, 2011 at 2:00 AM (Answer #11)

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cause: warning didnt get out early enough from the government to Hawwaii
effect: Hawaii didnt have enogh time to prepair and hundreds died.

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geosc | College Teacher | (Level 3) Assistant Educator

Posted January 25, 2012 at 11:08 PM (Answer #15)

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A cause: Both the U.S. and Japan were establishing and expanding their imperial holdings in the Pacific at the same time.  Same place, same time, same imperial design.

A result: U.S. allied with Great Britain and Russia to defeat Hitler.

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truthseekah | Salutatorian

Posted January 26, 2012 at 11:34 PM (Answer #16)

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I believe the cause of the attack was to convince the American people, who mostly believed in non-interventionalism, to go to war.  There is compelling evidence showing that US diplomacy provoked the Japanese, the attack was known ahead of time and there were many actions and non-actions by the military that were suspect, to say the least.

This article sheds light on the controversy.

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aznboy578 | Student , Grade 9 | Valedictorian

Posted February 10, 2012 at 6:38 AM (Answer #17)

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people died

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x-sumit-x | Student , Grade 10 | Honors

Posted February 28, 2012 at 6:43 AM (Answer #18)

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They were trying to take over manchuria and go against the UN and were afraid we would join the allies.

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bernsb | Student , Grade 9 | Honors

Posted April 21, 2012 at 2:56 PM (Answer #19)

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It killed lots of people and lead America to drop nukes in Japan.

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nt1996 | Student | eNoter

Posted May 9, 2012 at 4:34 PM (Answer #20)

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There truly was no provocation to the Japanese attacks at Pearl Harbor. It was a sneak attack intended to weaken the American Naval Fleet to a point where even if America got involved, the fleet would not be able to fight at a high enough level to bring victory. This was the immediate cause of Americas involvement in the Pacific Theatre of WWII. The end result was the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There was also a planned bombing of Tokyo, then, but that never came to fruition.

 

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yj24 | Student , Grade 9 | eNoter

Posted June 14, 2012 at 3:06 AM (Answer #21)

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The Japanese wanted to attack Pearl Harbour to destroy the US Pacific fleet, which would pose a grave threat to Japan's ambitions in Southeast Asia. Without a US fleet to interfere (e.g. docking at Singapore/ Phillipines), japan in the short term managed stunning successes (captured Hong Kong, Malaya, Singapore, Phillipines, Java .etc).

 

But in the long term this was a failure as not only were the US carriers Enterprise, Yorktown and Hornet not destroyed, Japan did not hit the codebreaking station as well. Thus the US managed to further break Jap. codes, leading to the decisive defeat at Midway later.

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jbledbetter | High School Teacher | eNoter

Posted July 31, 2012 at 11:09 PM (Answer #22)

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Short answer is: Cause= America had placed an embargo on Japan due to their increasing power and taking over most of the South Pacific islands. Japan was wanting to increase its oil for its war effort and saw the Pacific Fleet of the United States as its biggest threat.

                        Effect= You've always heard that the bombing of Pearl Harbor awoke a sleeping giant, and that it did. The United States was to remain neutral during the second war in Europe and the bombing made declaring war a popular reaction.

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jjrichardson | Student , College Freshman | Valedictorian

Posted August 19, 2012 at 1:24 AM (Answer #24)

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Japan felt they were superior to the United States and should have more territory and control. The United States was more powerful and stood in the way of them getting the resources they needed like oil and steel to establish more power.Japan wanted to control all of the islands of the Pacific and the U.S. Navy was considered to be an impediment to the Japanese plans. The effect of the attack of Pearl Harbor was that it forced the U.S. into a war with .It showed America that it could be touched. America once had a huge advantage over the rest of the world in terms of a global war because it had two oceans to keep it safe. But World War II saw the end of the ocean's safety, bringing the world close

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veronica12398 | eNoter

Posted August 28, 2012 at 8:54 AM (Answer #25)

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Pearl Harbour was run by the U.S so when Japan decided to bomb it they never realized what that would mean. It meant that the U.S would join the war and help defeat Japan and Germany. I believe it was one of the major turning points in the war. As we all know the U.S was not involved in the war until then. I believe Japan did not think the U.S would do anything to defend their country or any other country and that is where they played it wrong. With that one event they brought the biggest nation in to the war which caused the U.S to turn around a nuke Japan , and allowed the U.S to take other actions against Germany , so with one wrong call by Japan the war turned and Germany and Japan were defeated.

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ashley24906 | Student , Grade 11 | eNoter

Posted September 29, 2012 at 8:52 AM (Answer #26)

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Japan felt they were superior to the United States and should have more territory and control. The United States was more powerful and stood in the way of them getting the resources they needed like oil and steel to establish more power. In order for them to get safe passage through the harbor to get those supplies. They had to eliminate the threat of Britain and American navy in the Pearl Harbor. So they bombed it e mobilizing them, but not for long. The United States along with some of there allies. Brought Japan down to it's knees.

The "cause" was that Japan wanted to control all of the islands of the Pacific and the U.S. Navy was considered to be an impediment to the Japanese plans. The effect of the attack of Pearl Harbor was that it forced the U.S. into a war with Japan; a war that ended in the unleashing of the worlds first, and hopefully last, use of a nuclear bomb in an attempt to defeat an enemy.

twenty-one ships of the U.S. Pacific fleet were damaged and the death toll reached 2,403, along with 68 civilians and 1,178 injured. Of the military personnel lost at Pearl Harbor, 1,177 were from the Arizona.

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truthseekah | Salutatorian

Posted October 3, 2012 at 6:21 PM (Answer #27)

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It is highly probable that many in the US, including the President, knew of an emminent attack on Pearl Harbor prior to Dec. 7th.

On January 27, 1941, the Peruvian envoy in Tokyo told the third secretary in the US embassy that he had learnt from intelligence sources that the Japanese had a war plan which involved an attack on Pearl Harbor. On 10 July, the US military attaché in Tokyo reported that the Japanese Navy were secretly practicing airborne torpedo attacks on targets moored in Ariake Bay-a bay that resembles Pearl Harbor. The US military attaché in Mexico also reported that the Japanese were building midget submarines which would be towed to Hawaii for an attack on Pearl Harbor.

A top British agent, codenamed 'Tricycle,' told the FBI that the Japanese planned to attack Pearl Harbor, but his information was dismissed. And a Korean agent told American broadcaster Eric Severeid that the Japanese were going to attack Pearl Harbor. The agent repeated his story to a US Senator who alerted the State Department, US Army and Navy intelligence, and President Roosevelt personally.

American intelligence had broken all the Japanese codes. On 24 September 1941, a message from Japanese Naval Intelligence headquarters in Tokyo to the Japanese consul general in Honolulu was deciphered. It requested the exact locations of all US Navy ships in Pearl Harbor. Such detailed information would only be required if the Japanese were planning an attack on the ships at their moorings. In November, another message was intercepted ordering more drills involving attacks on capital ships at anchor in preparation to 'ambush and completely destroy the US enemy.' The only American fleet within reach was at Pearl Harbor.

On 25 November, a radio message from Admiral Yamamoto ordering the Japanese task force to attack the US fleet in Hawaii was intercepted. US Intelligence was understaffed and it is not known whether this message was decoded at the time. However, that same day, the US Secretary of War, Henry Stimson, noted in his diary:

'FDR stated that we were likely to be attacked perhaps as soon as next Monday. FDR asked: 'The question was how we should maneuver them into the position of firing the first shot without too much danger to ourselves. In spite of the risk involved, however, in letting the Japanese fire the first shot, we realized that in order to have the full support of the American people it was desirable to make sure that the Japanese be the ones to do this so that there should remain no doubt in anyone's mind as to who were the aggressors.''

On 29 November, US Secretary of State Cordell Hull showed a reporter from The New York Times a message saying that Pearl Harbor was going to be attacked on 7 December. As the attack approached, the American government received information from numerous sources that 7 December would be the day. On 1 December, Naval Intelligence in San Francisco worked out from news reports and signals picked up by shipping companies that the Japanese fleet that had disappeared from home waters was then to the west of Hawaii. Those who believe that Roosevelt knew about the attack all along maintain that a number of other reports say that the Japanese would strike at Pearl Harbor, but they have yet to be declassified.

http://ospreypearlharbor.com/debate/roosevelt%20.php

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