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This is primarily looked at from a country point of view. Each country has their own limits and rules as to immigration. Some countries however have formed partnerships with each other such as the EU. In the European union, one of the five freedoms, it's founding principles that states must abide by to join, is the free movement of persons. Those countries that have been accepted into the Shengen treaty have citizens that are allowed to move between those countries freely. Therefore someone living in Slovakia can freely travel and live and work in England if they so chose without having to go through the typical immigration process. The immigration is then controlled by the use of the citizens European union passport. There are many other examples of what can be done to control the flow, but it would depend upon whether you are trying to restrict the flow or free up the process in an individual country.
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