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what are the basic parts of cells and what are their function, and what's cell theory...

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anniecoughlin | eNotes Newbie

Posted May 14, 2013 at 2:01 AM via iOS

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what are the basic parts of cells and what are their function, and what's cell theory (may I say I'm only 11 so nothing to confusing) thanks!!

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mvcdc | Student, Undergraduate | (Level 1) Associate Educator

Posted May 14, 2013 at 3:16 AM (Answer #1)

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The Cell Theory (usually credited to Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow) has three major statements:

  1. All living organisms are composed of one of more cells. (Multicellular have a lot of cells, e.g. human beings; while unicellular organisms such as bacteria have a single cell)
  2. The cell is the basic unit of structure, function, and organization of living things. (It is the fundamental unit of life; much like a building block)
  3. All cells come from pre-existing cells. (Cells cannot just come out of nowhere. Cells are "off-springs" of other cells before them - born through cell division).

Parts of the Cell (present on both Animal and Plant cell unless otherwise specified):

  • Nucleus - control center of the cell, holds the DNA
  • Nucleolus - center of the cell, found inside the nucleus, produces ribosomal RNA (used for protein synthesis)
  • Cell Membrane - semi-permeable membrane, controls what goes in and out of the cell
  • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - contains ribosomes, for protein synthesis
  • Smooth ER - no ribosomes, for lipid synthesis
  • Ribosomes
  • Cytoskeleton - framework of the cell, support and structure
  • Golgi apparatus - packages protein (preparation for transport to destination)
  • Cytoplasm - gel-like substance inside the cell, place for most cell processes
  • Mitochondria - the power house of the cell, generate the cell's energy in the form of ATP.
  • Lysosome (Animals) - 'suicide bag', degrades waste and other unnecessary substances in the cell
  • Plastid (Plants) - carries out photosynthesis, storage of starch and fats
  • Central Vacuole (Plants) - compartments for storage of waste or food
  • Cell Wall (Plants) - rigid layer of cells outside the cell membrane, for structure and support of plants
  • Centriole/Centromere (Animals) - participates in cell division of animal cells.

Sources:

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