What is an excerpt in To Kill a Mockingbird responding to the Jim Crow laws?Please provide an actually excerpt from the book and, if possible, provide the page number.

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bullgatortail | High School Teacher | (Level 1) Distinguished Educator

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Probably the most obvious example of the Jim Crow laws in action comes at the beginning of the trial of Tom Robinson. The black men and women, who are patiently waiting "for the white people to go upstairs, began to come in." They were met by members of the Idler's Club. 

"Whoa now, just a minute," said a club member, holding up his walking stick. "Just don't start up them there steps yet awhile."  (Chapter 16)

It was an unwritten law that Negroes had to wait until all of the white spectators were seated before they could enter. Additionally, the blacks were not allowed to sit in the main section with the whites; they were segregated in the balcony. Later, Tom testifies that he had never entered the Ewell's property without permission. Scout reflects about Tom's respectability, and how

... a respectable Negro would never go into somebody's yard of his own volition.  (Chapter 19)

When Calpurnia takes Jem and Scout to her church, she is met by Lula, who objects to Cal

"... bringin' white chillun to nigger church."  (Chapter 12)

Lula knows that none of the black members of the First Purchase congregation would be allowed to enter any of Maycomb's white churches, so she does not see a reason for the white children to attend hers.


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