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When an author uses indirect characterization, the character is developed through speech or action. It is the reader's job to figure out from those actions what the character is like. In chapter 5 of Kaffir Boy, Mark Mathabane uses indirect characterization in chapter five, when he describes intentionally breaking one of his father's rules and being whipped for it. The reader is left to figure out why the boy chooses to break the rule.
When an author uses direct characterization, he or she interprets the character's actions for the reader, explaining what the character is like. Mark Mathabane uses direct characterization at the end of chapter nine, when he explains how and why he chose not to embrace Christianity.
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