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I tend to think, overall, the Truman Doctrine was a success. The idea that the US would offer military assistance to nations facing a communist threat successfully upheld the policy of containment, and did so without direct US military involvement. I would not consider the Korean or Vietnam Wars as pure Truman Doctrine, as future Presidents chose to pursue containment in a more aggressive manner, and Korea was a UN mandate.
I would say that this was a little bit of each. The Truman Doctrine was an early type of containment. It said that the US would help any country that was fighting against being taken over by the communists. Some countries did manage to avoid this, but others didn't.
The two main success stories, I suppose, were Greece and Turkey. In both cases, they repelled communist insurgencies with some US help. By contrast, you can argue that China represented a failure of this policy. The US wanted Chiang Kai-Shek's Nationalist government to retain power, but Mao and the communists took China in 1949.
So there were some results both ways, which presumably means the policy was partly successful and partly a failure.
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