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Of course, kids do not have to live apart from their families in totalitarian societies. The Nazis, for example, did not generally take kids from their families. Neither did the Communist Party in the USSR. However, it makes sense that dictatorial leaders such as the ones in this book would make kids live away from their parents.
In Anthem, the government does not want people to have individuality. They have numbers rather than names, for example. They are also expected to treat everyone equally and not to have special friends. In this context, you can see why they would want to raise kids apart from their parents.
If you grow up with your parents, you form a family. It is your "in group." You identify most with your family and other people are not as important to you. When you do this, you form the idea that you are different from everyone else. In this book, the leaders want everyone to be the same so that they will not try to rebel against the society. The leaders want everyone to think the same so that there will be complete social stability.
This is why they raise kids away from parents. They want the kids to feel like they are just pieces in the large society -- not individuals who are tied to certain families and friends.
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