Tommy was hiking one day and all of a sudden, a bear appeared just up the pathway. Please describe the likely physiological responses that his body undergoes in response to the bear’s sudden...

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The first thing that would happen is the famous adrenaline rush.  It is also known as "fight or flight."  When faced with dangers you frequently have only 2 options: stand your ground and fight, or take flight and run away.  Either choice you will need a large amount of Energy in a short time, and Adrenaline triggers these changes:

Increased heart rate
Increased respiration
Dilated pupils
Heightened hearing acuity
Decreased pain sensitivity

In addition to the adrenaline induced changes, he might also experience a dry mouth, increased perspiration, and goose bumps. 

There might be further physiological changes, but those depend on the actions of the bear. 

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