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There are a lot of similarities here. I think there are two major ones. In both cases, one of them relies pretty much completely on the other. The dog relies on Candy, Lennie relies on George. Also, in both cases, the one of them has to allow the other one to be killed.
In a lot of ways, the killing of the dog is a foreshadowing of the end of the book. However, the parallel is not exact. George learns from how Candy felt. He doesn't want someone else to kill his "pet." So, instead, he does it himself. I think he feels it is kinder to Lennie and I think it makes him feel better than if he let someone else do it.
As for a quote, Candy tells George
I ought to of shot that dog myself, George. I shouldn't ought to of let no stranger shoot my dog."
I think George hears this in his head as he goes after Lennie.
A very revealing quote in the book is made by Carlson, who suggests to Candy that "That dog ain't no good to hisself." The conventional wisdom in the bunkhouse with the guys is that the dog needs to be put out of his misery, that it is something expendable, no matter how valuable it is to Candy.
Later, after Lennie's crime is revealed to the men, Slim suggests to George that even if they were able to keep Curly from killing Lennie, that locking a person up in a cage would be worse than killing him. That no matter how important Lennie was to George, killing him might be the only option.
In both the part of the novel where Candy surrenders to the idea of his dog being shot and where George comes to terms with the idea that Lennie must also be shot, and that he ought to be the one to do it, you could say that George took in the example of Candy and his dog when he made his decision to kill Lennie himself.
In the book "Of Mice and Men" Candy and his dog are both old. Candy is probably somewhat of an eyesore to the other men because he reminds them of what they too can become. His dog is an eye sore and smells bad. Candy is not very useful anymore and is waiting his time to die. His dog is hanging in there but is also waiting his time to die.
When the dog is shot, Candy is totally alone. Candy makes the statement he should have been the one to shoot his dog. This statement ties the dog to George and Lennie's situation.
After Lennie accidentally kills Curley's wife, George knows he will be "put down" or killed by the others. He knows that Candy had meant that since his dog had loved him and been loyal to him, he should have been the one to put him down. Therefore, when George does shoot Lennie, he is "Putting his own down."
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