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I can help point out a few to get you started:
1. Personification. This is where you give inanimate objects human-like characteristics. It helps things to have more life and depth to them. In this poem, Browning refers to "the startled little waves." Waves cannot be startled; that is tying a human reaction to an object in nature, and it makes the waves seem alive and active. He also says that the waves were roused "from their sleep," again tying the ocean to traits of humans.
2. Onomatopoeia. This is when the words sound like the thing that they are describing, for example, "hiss" to describe the sound a cat makes when angry. In the poem, the flame of the match "spurts," the sand is "slushy," their hearts are "beating," and the narrator "taps" and "scratches" at the windowpane. These words help the reader to feel like they are right there, hearing the noises.
3. Alliteration. This is when two or more words in a sentence begin with the same consonant sounds. In this poem, we have the "pushing prow," and the "slushy sand," the moon is "large and low," and there is a "sharp scratch" at the window. The use of alliteration helps the poem to flow and have cadence.
I hope that those help to get you started; good luck!
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