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In optics, attenuation is related to the ratio of the input power to the output power of the signal. The equation for attenuation is:
Attenuation (dB) = 10 * log( input power / output power )
According to the problem statement, input power / output power = 1/4
Attenuation (dB) = 10 * log( input power / output power ) = 10 log( 1/4 ) = 10 * -0.6 = -6 dB.
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