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In my opinion, the theme of this poem is Christian theology. The poem is meant to convey to the listener some of the major ideas of the Christian faith.
The poem starts by asking the lamb if it knows who made it and who cares for it and gives it the things that it needs to live. This is what is going on in the first stanza.
In the second stanza, the speaker tells the lamb (probably a symbol for a child) a bit about Jesus. The speaker talks about how Jesus became human for the sake of all people.
My suggestion is a bit different from the above post.
Though, on the surface level, lamb seems to stand just for innocence, but if analyzed deeply, the lamb in Blake's poem is a personal symbol which signifies God himself. The lamb indicates the softer aspects of God, for instance mercy, pity, forgiveness and so on. As the tiger of Blake's "The Tyger" from the experience poems, signifies the harsher and harder attributes of God, like wrath, rage, audaciousness etc., similarly "The Lamb" symbolizes some specific qualities of God himself.
This innocence of the lamb (the kindness of God) is a model for humankind. According to Blake, in order to bring peace and bliss, this innocence is very important. In fact, all his innocence and experience poems, in pairs, are foils for one another; and together, they make a sense.
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