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Review Questions to Chapter 4 (What makes a society just?)     (1)  Anarchists argue...

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Review Questions to Chapter 4 (What makes a society just?)



(1)  Anarchists argue that

a.only a strong government can insure social justice.

b.it is immoral for one group of people to rule another group.

c.anarchism leads to social chaos.

d.compensatory justice is best left in the hands of the law.


(2) Compensatory justice

a.is the retributive distribution of benefits to those who have suffered.

b.is, for example, some types of affirmative action programs.

c.is, for example, jail sentences given to those who break the law.

d.is the same as distributive justice.


(3)Retributive justice, unlike distributive justice,

a.gives benefits to people who have been denied benefits they deserve.

b.is concerned with the fair distribution of burdens and benefits to people in situations of conflict over resources.

c.is, for example, a graduated income tax.

d.is, for example, taking away someone's driver's license for drunk driving.


(4) According to Fadl, which type of political system would a Muslim jurist have historically favored?

a.rule by custom

b.rule by a king

c.rule of a caliphate



(5) According to Fadl, an important political value central to a Muslim polity is

a.unquestioning obedience to the king.

b.the pursuit of justice.

c.the subordination of women.

d.waging wars.


(6) According to the Qur'an, all human beings are

a.God's vicegerents.

b.God's servants.

c.tainted by original sin.

d.always good.


(7) According to Fadl, what is the "fatal fiction" inherent in claiming that God is the sole legislator?

a.It undermines God's authority.

b.It leads to atheism.

c.It leads to secular humanism.

d.It pretends that some human agents have perfect access to the will of God.


(8) What is the human attempt to apply the divine ideal as revealed by God's Way?




d.taklifAccording to Fadl,

(9) According to Fadl,

a.legal opinions adopted and enforced by the state cannot be said to be God's law.

b.the Taliban are an excellent exemplar of good Muslim governance.

c.all state laws are religious at heart.

d.women should have no voice in political affairs.



(10) According to John Locke, private property is created when

a.there is competition.

b.there is cooperation.

c.human labor is mixed with nature.

d.people take property by force.


(11)  According to Adam Smith, a surplus value will result if an efficient division of labor can be created, and this surplus value rightfully belongs to

a.the worker.

b.the proletariat.

c.the bourgeoisie.

d.the state.


(12) According to Marx and Engels, bourgeoisie society

a.is poor.

b.is unconcerned about efficient management.

c.exploits workers.

d.pays workers a fair wage.


(13)According to Marx and Engels, how does the proletariat differ from the bourgeoisie?

a.The proletariat controls capital.

b.The proletariat's jobs depend on bourgeoisie.

c.The bourgeoisie's wealth is based on what the proletariat pays them.

d.The proletariat exploits the bourgeoisie for the profit.



(14) Marx and Engels write, "Property, in its present form, is based on the antagonism of capital and wage-labour." If this is so, then

a.the property communism seeks to abolish is that of the petty artisan and small peasant.

b.society is classless.

c.workers are rich.

d.the abolition of private property of which communists speak is the abolition of bourgeoisie property.


(15) Marx and Engels write, "What else does the history of ideas prove, than that intellectual production changes its character in proportion as material production changes? The ruling ideas of each age have ever been the ideas of its ruling class." If this is true, then

a.philosophy determines economics.

b.the charges against communism made from a religious and philosophical viewpoint are not worth considering.

c.the charges against communism made from a religious and philosophical viewpoint are worth considering.

d.philosophy shapes the ruling class.




(16) Marx and Engels write, "What else does the history of ideas prove, than that intellectual production changes its character in proportion as material production changes? The ruling ideas of each age have ever been the ideas of its ruling class." If this is true, then

a.philosophy determines economics.

b.the charges against communism made from a religious and philosophical viewpoint are not worth considering.

c.the charges against communism made from a religious and philosophical viewpoint are worth considering.

d.philosophy shapes the ruling class.


(17)  According to Rawls, the role of justice is

a.to reach reflective equilibrium.

b.to overcome the veil of ignorance

c.find a rational "origin" story about our social existence.

d.define appropriate distribution of benefits and burdens, rights and duties.


(18) The role of the original position in Rawls's theory is

a.a hypothetical starting point, which, if assumed, will lead to the concept of justice as fairness.

b.a state of mind in which we are clearer about our principles and the premises of their derivation.

c.To persuade us that people are rational, self-interested, with a capacity for justice.

d.to ensure that each person has an equal right to basic liberties.


(19) The subject of justice is the way in which major social institutions

a.distribute merits and punishments.

b.determine the division of labor.

c.distribute fundamental rights and duties.

d.promote the veil of ignorance.


(20) The main idea of Rawls's theory of justice is

a.we are free and equal under conditions of a veil of ignorance.

b.we can achieve a state of initial symmetry to determine principles of justice.

c.the principles of justice are the object of original agreement made by people in an initial position     of equality who are presumably rational, free, and self-interested.

d.the principles of justice are the object of original agreement made by people who are in a state of reflective equilibrium.


(21) The "veil of ignorance" is important to Rawls's theory because

a.the initial symmetry between persons in the original situation ensures that their deliberations occur in a fair situation.

b.it helps to avoid conflicts of interests between rational people who are deliberating about principles of justice.

c.it ensures that the basic institutions are the subject of the deliberations in the original position.

d.it is the starting point for an authoritarian theory of justice.


(22) According to Hobbes, humans realized that ruling power had to be given to someone who could guarantee order because

a.rational reflection and the desire for self-preservation led to the realization that society could not be maintained in a condition of "war of all against all."

b.one group eventually came to power and conquered the others.

c.the general will of the group desired vengeance.

d.there never was a time when a social contract did not exist.


(23) Because Rousseau believed humans are basically good by nature, he

a.rejected a social contract theory of government.

b.viewed civilization as a corrupting influence.

c.rejected the idea of a general will.

d.believed that the state had no authority to restrict individual freedom.


(24) Crito argues that Socrates should escape because

a.the law allows him that option.

b.he was condemned unjustly, and therefore has the right to break the law.

c.he would bring disgrace upon himself and his friends if he fails to take advantage of this opportunity to escape.

d.he has not made any promises to the state.


(25) Socrates lays the groundwork for his argument by stating which of the following principles?

a.One should always do what one's friends advise.

b.Immoral actions cause no harm if no one finds out about them.

c.The preservation of life is our most important duty.

d.Two wrongs do not make a right.


(26) Socrates argues he should obey the law because

a.it is not right to break one's promises, and he has promised to obey the state.

b.his judges were right in their verdict.

c.two wrongs do make a right.

d.sometimes civil disobedience is called for.


(27)  At one point during the speech Socrates imagines the laws of Athens, the Laws say, "For, after having brought you into the world, nurtured and educated you, and given you and every other citizen a share in every good we had to give, we further give the right to every Athenian, if he does not like us when he has come of age and has seen the ways of the city, he may go wherever else he pleases and take his goods with him." This argument implies that

a.since Socrates stayed in Athens, he stayed involuntarily.

b.if you leave Athens, you must still obey her laws.

c.if one voluntarily enjoys the benefits of a state, one assumes obligations to obey its laws.

d.Socrates was not free to leave Athens when he came of age.


(28) People have argued that governmental authority rests on a variety of factors. Of those listed below, with which would Socrates most likely agree?


b.divine right

c.social contract



(29) Socrates asserts that "the really important thing is not to live, but to live well." By this he meant that

a.he should not die, but escape.

b.quality of life is more important than quantity.

c.life is worth it at any price.

d.no one should choose to die, if living is a viable alternative.


(30) How do you think Socrates would answer the question "What makes a society just"?

a.The freedom to disobey unjust laws is justice.

b.There is no such thing as justice.

c.Justice is the abolition of capital punishment.

d.Obeying the laws of the state is just.


(31) If a society recognizes the right of civil disobedience, then it

a.recognizes that some laws may be unjust.

b.enforces a general duty to obey the law in all cases.

c.recognizes that all legal laws are moral.

d.violates clear biblical standards upon which all Christians and Jews agree.



(32) King's response to the complaint that he is an outsider and has no right to interfere in the business of Birmingham is that

a.civil disobedience is justified under all conditions and anywhere.

b.injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.

c.justice anywhere is a threat to injustice everywhere.

d.he is not really an outsider since he was born there.


(33) Which of the following is part of the four basic steps of a nonviolent campaign?


b.indirect action


d.asking for change and waiting until it happens


(34) Which of the following statements would King most likely agree with?

a.It is wrong to use immoral means to attain a moral end.

b.The end justifies the means.

c.We should love, respect, and obey the laws of our country or leave it.

d.All laws are moral laws.


(35) According to King, an unjust law is one that

a.respects minority rights.

b.is in harmony with natural law.

c.respects human dignity.

d.is in disagreement with God's moral law.


(36) According to King, civil disobedience is the best way to break an unjust law because

a.one does not have to pay the penalty for breaking the law.

b.only violence will get people's attention.

c.it expresses the highest respect for law.

d.it does not really matter how one opposes an unjust law.


(37) By the "myth of time" King means

a.the view that time exists.

b.the view that time does not exist.

c.the view that time cures all ills.

d.if civil disobedience causes people to respond violently then it is wrong.


(38) How do you think King would answer the question "What makes a society just?"

a.A just society is one in which everyone obeys the laws.

b.A just society permits the use of civil disobedience.

c.A just society does not permit the use of civil disobedience.

d.A just society can only be achieved by the use of violence.


(39) In Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Association the Supreme Court decided that

a.the government has a right to develop public property even if doing so would make particular Indian rituals impossible to practice.

b.the government has no right to develop public property if doing so would make particular Indian rituals impossible to practice.

c.Indian rituals could only be practiced on reservations.

d.Indian rituals could be practiced anywhere that tribes wanted to practice their rituals.


(40) Deloria finds the Supreme Court decision in Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Association disturbing because

a.it made practicing tribal religion illegal.

b.it treats tribal religions in a different way than Western religions.

c.it analyzes tribal religions in the same way as Western religions.

d.it attempts to convert all Indians to Christianity.


(41) The Indian perspective on religion is separated by a “great gulf” from Western thinking about religion because

a.Western religion is always practiced in a church.

b.tribal religions rely on tribal elders to lead all ceremonies and Western religions can be practiced by anyone.

c.the Indian perspective is communal and the Western perspective is individual.

d.the Indian perspective is individual and the Western perspective is communal.


(42) The first and most familiar type of sacred place that Deloria discusses is

a.a place where something of great significance has happened in a people’s history.

b.a place where a great leader was born.

c.places that are recognized as important by foreigners.

d.places that have been designated as “historic landmarks.”


(43) According to Deloria, the main difference between a sacred place like Gettysburg and the place where Joshua led the Hebrews across the River Jordan is that

a.Gettysburg is meaningful for Americans and the River Jordan is sacred for Jews, Christians, and Muslims.

b.people do not realize that Gettysburg is a sacred place.

c.more religious ceremonies happen at the River Jordan than at Gettysburg.

d.Gettysburg was made holy only by the actions of people and has no deeper religious meaning.


(44) Deloria argues that the federal courts’ insistence that a place is only holy if it has always been central to the beliefs and practices of a tribe denies

a.the connection between Western religious practices and tribal religious practices.

b.that all of land is holy for Indian tribes.

c.the possibility of continuing revelation.

d.that tribal religious practices must be kept secret.


(1) Social philosophy is primarily concerned with the justification of governmental authority to rule and with the nature of government or the state. 





(2) An egalitarian argues that all persons, simply because they are persons, ought to share equally in the distribution of benefits and hardships.





(3) Muslim jurists have always been suspicious of allowing one human being to wield arbitrary authority over another.





(4) The Qur'an specifies a particular form of government.





(5) For Fadl, Shari'ah ought to be viewed as the absolute literal Word of God that should predominate in all Muslim societies.





(6) Fadl concludes that due to human imperfection any exploration of God's law is pointless.





(7) Laissez-faire capitalism is based on the idea of the abolition of private property.





(8) Communism is the same as socialism.





(9)According to Marx and Engels, the need of a constantly expanding market chases the bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the globe.





(10) According to Marx, all culture (freedom, art, law, family, education, etc.,) will disappear once communism is realized.





(11) The material principle of justice requires that benefits and burdens be distributed fairly according to relevant differences and similarities.





(12) "Reflective equilibrium" is the state of mind reached after a process of reflection about the original position, in which we are clearer as to what principles of justice our judgments conform.





(13) The "veil of ignorance" is a hypothetical quality of the original situation in which no one knows her or his place in society, class position, social status, fortune in the distribution of natural assets and abilities, intelligence, not even their conceptions of the good or their own psychological propensities.





(14) Social contract theory states that the authority of government derives from force.





(15) One important implication of social contract theory is that humans are by nature good and hence have no obligations to the state.





(16)In the speech that Socrates imagines the Laws of Athens making, the Laws argue that social chaos would result if everyone took the law into his or her own hands.






(17) According to King, law and order is an end in itself.





(18) Dr. King would agree that the mission of the Christian church is to save souls and stay out of politics.





(19) Oppressors typically justify their oppression by dehumanizing the oppressed and justifying their exploitation through legal means.





(20) Deloria believes that non-Indians can understand the sense of relatedness to the land and animals that Indians have.





(21) The lack of ill effects when someone deliberately violates a holy place proves that the place is not actually holy.





     (22)  Deloria believes that Indians must make an effort to show the integrity and sensibility of Indian religious practices.






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