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Odysseus fulfills the expectations of a hero in that he survives in many situations where an ordinary man would certainly have perished. He is a leader who is looked up to by his men. He deviates from the traditional hero in that physical strength is not one of his attributes, but he makes up for it with his intelligence. We see his cunning in how he concocts a way to win the Trojan War (using the Trojan horse) and survive the encounter with the Cyclops Polyphemus. He also never loses sight of his ultimate goal, making it back home to Ithaca and his wife Penelope. When offered immortality by the nymph Calypso, Odysseus chooses to return home to his wife. Odysseus may also be viewed as less than heroic in several ways. For one thing, he is the only member of his crew to survive the journey home. He was unable to save any of his own men. He also was unfaithful to his wife on several occasions, although this happened with immortal women who were in a position to be exceptionally persuasive. Finally, Odysseus had a proud streak that got him into trouble several times. In fact, it was his pride that initially offended Poseidon, the god of the sea. So one could make a case for the fact that Odysseus’ pride cost his men their lives.
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