In your opinion, of the three policies that I compared ( Brazil, Mexico and the United States) , which was the most progressive and which was the most oppressive? Why?
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To really answer your question, it would help if we knew what policies you are discussing in regards to Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. If the policies are not stated, you will receive answers which may not align with what you are wanting discussed.
I think that your question is probably regarding indigenous populations since that is what you asked about before. I would argue that the most progressive policies are probably those of Canada. They have given indigenous people more autonomy than any of the other countries. Brazil could be seen as the most oppressive as it still has issues with indigenous people and loggers coming into violent conflict in the Amazon.
I agree that Canada's current indigenous policy is probably the most progressive. Struggles over resources have indeed strained relations between Brazil and its indigenous peoples, just as they have with the U.S. government American Indians. One example was the 2011 assassination of Guarani leader Nisio Gomes, who had relocated some of his people on lands that had been taken from them by ranchers. I would add, though, that many of the current debates along these lines have often been more complex than they have been portrayed. There are strong divisions between Native peoples over how resources on Indian lands should be used. But overall, Canada has done more to protect at least the cultural sovereignty of its native people than either the United States or Brazil.
Of the three countries you mention in your question above -- the U. S., Mexico, and Brazil -- I would have to say that Mexico seems to have the most progressive policies. In doing some research about their policies, I was surprised to see how many rights for numerous indigenous peoples are enshrined in the constitution and actually embedded in law. I was especially surprised to see the great tolerance for the use of indigenous languages. It's possible, of course, that these progressive policies are not fully implemented, but the fact that they are constitutionally ordained is nonetheless impressive.
In the current day, from among those three countries, I would argue it is the United States that has the most progressive policies towards natives, although none of these countries is really that progressive at all in this area.
Native tribes and reservations have a degree of autonomy in the US, enjoy some federal aid, enjoy new revenue streams from tribal gaming and are federally recognized and exempt from some taxes.
In Mexico, there is still open racism towards native peoples, and government policy in terms of native lands mirrors that of the late 1800s US: take the best land and resources and isolate them in places where it is hard to survive. Natives are very underrepresented in all three countries when it comes to positions in government.
To be honest, I don't think any of these countries have an unblemished record when it comes to the issue of indigenous people groups. Certainly the abuses of indigenous people in the USA in history is well documented, and similar stories are coming to light in the way that Mexico and Brazil have dealt and are dealing with indigenous people groups, especially in the Amazon, which remains a big issue for Brazil. However, if I had to choose, I would select Mexico.
In general, I think that Mexico has the most oppressive politics. It doesn't say anything about indigenous people in your post, but even there I still think Mexico is the most oppressive. There is a reason people leave Mexico for the US. If the country had more progressive policies, it might have a better economy.
No one is blameless, but today, the U.S. is far ahead of Mexico and Brazil in its policies. Brazil is not exactly oppressive, but it has had some troubles with its indigenous peoples being evicted and delegitimized. Mexico, meanwhile, is very oppressive; the economy (primarily service-based with high drug trade) is struggling, and leaders don't care because they are universally corrupt. (My opinion: look at how many people are fleeing Mexico to judge conditions there.) The U.S. is also problematic, mainly in its failure to secure the borders and ease employment conditions, but we have the best working conditions of the three, and the relative poverty threshhold here is far above most of the world.
So, to sum up, U.S. is most progressive, then Brazil, then Mexico. However, check your sources and draw your own conclusions.
I think there are too many factors for me to give a clear cut answer. I will say that each country (United States, Mexico, and Brazil) has really laid the foundation for much of the suffering that the natives endure. Each country has a lot of changes to make before I could view them as more progressive than oppressive.
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