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Enzymes are typically proteins or modified proteins which are used to control the rate of a reaction. In the case of the pancreatic enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, and amylase, all are used to facilitate the breakdown of foods.
Enzymes, like other proteins, are coded for by the DNA of the cell. The information is transcribed within the nucleus to create messenger RNA, which moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm the messenger RNA is translated, or read, by ribosomes; this creates the protein in its raw form. This generally happens on the outer surface of the endoplasmic reticulum. The protein is then transported to the golgi apparatus, where it is folded and other molecules such as carbohydrates are added to it to make it functional. The completed protein, which is now an enzyme, is enclosed in a membranous vesicle and transported out of the cell to its destination in the small intestine.
The pancreas is a very important organ in the human body that forms a part of both the endocrine system as well as the digestive system. As part of the endocrine system the pancreas produces hormones like insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. These are produced in the region called the islets of Langerhans by cells that includes the alpha cells, beta cells, delta cells, etc.
As a part of the digestive system the pancreas is the gland responsible for the production of enzymes that help in the digestion of proteins and fats. The digestive enzymes are produced in cells known as the Basophilic cells and bicarbonate ions that help maintain pH so that digestive enzymes can function are produced in the Centroacinar cells.
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